Brief Overview of the People's Republic of China
The ancient Chinese civilization – one of the world's earliest – flourished in the fertile basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain. For millennia, China's political system was based on hereditary monarchies, known as dynasties, beginning with the semi-mythological Xia of the Yellow River basin (c. 2000 BC). Since 221 BC, when the Qin Dynasty first conquered several states to form a Chinese empire, the country has expanded, fractured and been reformed numerous times. The Republic of China overthrew the last dynasty in 1911, and ruled the Chinese mainland until 1949. In 1945, the Republic of China acquired Taiwan from the Empire of Japan following World War II. In the 1946–1949 phase of the Chinese Civil War, the Communist Party defeated the nationalist Guomindang in mainland China and established the People's Republic of China in Beijing on 1 October 1949, while the Guomindang relocated the Republican government to Taipei. The Republic of China's jurisdiction is now limited to Taiwan and several outlying islands, including Penghu, Kinmen and Matsu, and it has received limited diplomatic recognition.
Since the introduction of economic reforms in 1978, China has become the world's fastest-growing major economy. As of 2012, it is the world's second-largest economy, just after the United States, by both nominal total GDP and purchasing power parity (PPP), and is also the world's largest exporter and second-largest importer of goods. China is a recognized nuclear-weapon state and has the world's largest standing army, with the second-largest defense budget. The PRC has been a member of the United Nations since 1971, when it replaced the ROC as a permanent member of the UN Security Council. China is also a member of numerous formal and informal multilateral organizations, including the WTO, APEC, BRICS, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, the BCIM and the G20. China has been characterized as a potential superpower by a number of academics, military analysts, and public policy and economics analysts.
The People’s Republic of China it’s the fourth largest country in the world.
Located on 9 596 960 km², China comes right after Russia, Canada and USA, and it’s the largest one-party communist country on the planet. It's capital is Beijing. The second-largest and most recognizable city in PRC is Shanghai - it has become a symbol of China's rapid economic expansion since the 1990s.
It is the world's most populous country, with a population of over 1.3 billion people. It exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four direct-controlled municipalities (Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai and Chongqing), and two mostly self-governing special administrative regions (Hong Kong and Macau). The PRC also claims Taiwan – which is controlled by the Republic of China (ROC), a separate political entity – as its 23rd province, a claim controversial due to the complex political status of Taiwan and the unresolved Chinese Civil War.
The official currency it’s the Chinese Yuan (CNY) – the current rate (to 03.02.2013) its 0.23 BGN for 1 CNY.
China's two millenia of history and brilliant culture have now become precious tourism resources. One of the Seven Wonders of the World - the Great Wall of China, is here. Some of the most famous inventions of mankind also originate from here: gunpowder, the compass, silk, fine china, the lunar calendar (one of the oldest in the world!), the first encyclopedia (1000 volumes), the first star catalog and more. 14 of the highest mountain peaks in the world are located here, as well as the third biggest, right after the Nile and the Amazon, river on the planet - the Yangzi (Yangtze), with a total length of 6700 km. Among the numerous historical and tourist sights are the tomb of the first emperor Qin Shi Huang (Chin Shih Huang), the paintings in the Mogao caves, etc.
The People’s Republic of China is a place where past and present collide, but at the same time benefit from each other, having high-tech transport, systems, and keeping the land “virgin” by taking care of it, and respecting its heritage.